| New Age claims about the mystical power of crystals
are a con,says Richard Dawkins.In this "missing
chapter" from his new book,he argues that the science of these rocks is more
amazing than ball-gazers could imagine.
The film star
Shirley Maclaine "places four quartz crystal
clusters in the four corners of her bathtub every time she takes a bath".
This doubtless has some mystic connection with the following recipe,found
on the World Wide Web,for meditation:
"Each of the four quartz crystals in the meditation room should be
"programmed" to project gentle, loving, relaxing,crystalline energy towards
all those present within the Meditation group.The quartz crystals will then
generate a field of positive crystalline energy surrounding everyone in the
Language like this is a con trick.It sounds "scientific" enough
to bamboozle the innocent."Programming" is what you do to computers.The word
means nothing when applied to crystals. "Energy" and "field" are carefully
defined notions in physics. There is no such thing as "loving" or "crystalline"
energy,whether positive or no.
New Age lore advises placing a quartz crystal in your water jug.Another Web
site states:"You will soon appreciate the sparkling
purity of your crystal water".
See how the trick works?Somebody with no understanding of the real world
could make a kind of poetic association with "crystal clear" water.But that
is no more sensible than trying to read by the light of a ("bright as a ")
button.Or putting ("hard as") nails under your pillow to assist an
"Try the following experiment when you next suffer from flu: hold your
personal quartz crystal and visualise yellow light radiating through it,then
place your crystal in a jug of water and drink this water the next day;one
cup of water at two - hourly intervals.You will be amazed at the result!"
Drinking water at two - hourly intervals is a good idea,anyway,when you have
flu.Putting a quartz crystal in it will have no additional effect.In
particular,no amount of "visualising" of coloured light will change the
composition of either the crystal or the water.
Pseudo-scientific drivel like this is a disturbingly prominent part of the
culture of our age. I have limited my examples to crystals because I had
to draw a line somewhere. But "star signs" would have done just as well.
Or "angels", "chanelling","telepathy","quantum healing","homeopathy","map
dowsing".There is no obvious limit to human gullibility.We are docile
credulity-cows,eager victims of quacks and charlatans who milk us and grow
fat.There is a rich living to be made by anyone prepared to prostitute the
language - and the wonder of science.
But isn't it all - crystal ball -gazing,star signs,birth stones,ley - lines
and the rest - just a bit of harmless fun? If people want to believe in garbage
such as astrology or crystal healing,why not let them? But it is so sad to
think about all that they are missing.There is so much wonder in real science.The
universe is mysterious enough to need no help from warlock,shamans and "psychic"
tricksters.These,are,at best a soul-slapping distraction.At worst,they are
The real world,properly understood in the scientific way,is deeply beautiful
and unfailingly interesting.It is worth putting in some honest effort to
understand it properly,undistracted by false wonder and prostituted
pseudo-science.For illustration,we need look no farther than crystals
In a crystal like quartz or diamond the atoms are arranged in a precisely
repeating pattern.The atoms in a diamond - all identical carbon atoms - are
arrayed like soldiers on parade,except that the precision of their dressing
far outsmarts the best-drilled guards regiment,and the atomic soldiers outnumber
all the people that have ever lived,or ever will. Imagine yourself shrunk
to become one of the carbon atoms in the heart of a diamond crystal.You are
one of the soldiers in a gigantic parade,but it will seem a little odd because
the files are arrayed in three dimensions.Perhaps a prodigious school of
fish is a better image.
Each fish in the school is one carbon atom.Think of them moving in space,keeping
their distance from each other,and holding precise angles,by means of forces
that you can't see,but which scientists fully understand.But if this is a
fish school,it is one that,to scale would fill the Pacific Ocean. In any
decent -sized diamond,you are likely to be looking along arrays of atoms
numbering hundreds of millions in any one straight line.
Carbon atoms can take up other crystal-lattice formations.To revert to the
military analogy,they can adopt alternative drill conventions.Graphite (the
lead in pencils) is also carbon,but is obviously nothing like diamond. In
graphite,the atoms form sheets of hexagons like chicken wire.Each sheet is
loosely bonded to those above and below it,and when impurities are present,the
sheets slide easily against each other,which is why graphite is a good lubricant.
Diamond is not a lubricant.Its legendary hardness abrades the toughest
materials.But the atoms in soft graphite and hard diamond are identical;if
you could persuade the atoms in graphite crystals to adopt the drill rules
of diamond crystals,you would be rich.It can be done,but you need colossal
pressures and high temperatures - presumably the conditions that produce
diamonds naturally,deep in the earth.
If hexagons make a sheet of flat graphite,you can imagine
that interspersing some pentagons among the hexagons could make the sheet
buckle into a curve.Place exactly 12 pentagons among 20 hexagons and the
curve bends round into a complete sphere. Geometers call it a truncated
icosahedron.This is exactly the pattern of the sewing seams in a football.The
football is,therefore,theoretically a pattern into which carbon atoms might
Mirabile dictu,exactly this pattern has been discovered among carbon
atoms.The team responsible,including Sir Harry Kroto [knighted for his
discovery,when have any mystics been knighted for their contribution? LB],of
Sussex University,won the 1996 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.Called
"Buckminsterfullerene", it is an elegant sphere of 60 carbon atoms,linked
up as 20 hexagons interspersed with 12 pentagons.The name honours the visionary
American architect Buckminster Fuller,and the spheres are affectionately
known as buckyballs.They can combine together
to make larger crystals.Like graphite sheets,buckyballs make good
lubricants,probably because of their spherical shape;they presumably work
like tiny ball-bearings.
Since the buckyball's discovery,chemists have realised it is just a special
case of a large family of "buckytubes" [Science often
works by generalising special cases-LB] and other "fullerenes".Carbon
atoms can theoretically join up to form an Aladdin's cave of fascinating
crystalline forms - another aspect of the unique property that qualifies
carbon to be the fundamental element of life.
Not every atom has carbon's talent for joining copies of itself.Other crystals
contain more than one kind of "soldier",alternating in some elegant pattern.In
quartz crystals it is silicon and oxygen instead of carbon;in common salt
it is electrically charged atoms of sodium and chlorine.Crystals naturally
break along lines that betray the underlying regimental drill pattern.That
is why salt crystals are square,why the honeycomb columns of the
Giants' Causeway stand as they do,and why diamond
All crystals "self-assemble" under locally acting rules.Their component
"soldiers",floating free in solution,spontaneously plug themselves into "gaps"
on the surface of the existing crystal,where they exactly fit.So a crystal
may grow in solution from a tiny "seed" - perhaps an impurity like the sand
grain at the heart of a pearl.There is no grand design of buckyballs,quartz
crystals,diamonds or anything else.
This principle of self- assembly runs right through living structures,too.DNA
itself (the genetic molecule at the centre of all life) can be regarded as
a long,spiral crystal in which one half of the double helix self-assembles
on a template provided by the other.Viruses self-assemble like elaborately
complex crystal clusters. The head of the T4 bacteriophage (a virus that
infects bacteria) even looks like a single crystal.
Go into any museum and look at the collection of minerals. Even go into a
New Age shop and look at the crystals on display,along with all the other
apparatus of mumbo-jumbo and kitsch con trickery.The crystals won't respond
to your attempts to "program" them for meditation,or "dedicate" them with
warm,roving thoughts.They won't cure you of anything,or fill the room with
"inner peace" or "psychic energy".
But many of them are very beautiful,and it surely adds to the beauty when
we understand that the shapes of the crystals,the angles of their facets,the
rainbow colours that flash from inside them,all have a precise explanation
that lies deep in the patterns of atomic lattice work.
Crystals don't vibrate with mystical,loving energy.But they do,in a much
stricter and more interesting sense,vibrate.Some crystals have an electric
charge across them which changes when you physically deform the crystal.
This "piezoelectric" effect,discovered in 1880 by the Curie brothers (Marie's
husband and his brother),is used in the styluses of record-players (the deforming
is done by the groove of the turning record),and in some microphones (the
deforming is done by sound waves in the air).The piezo effect works in reverse.
[Something mystics would have trouble with,since this
is a negative effect with respect to the former-LB] When a suitable
crystal is placed in an electric field,it deforms itself rhythmically.Often
the timing of this oscillation is extremely accurate.It serves as the equivalent
of the pendulum or balance wheel in a quartz watch.
[Thence there is more magic and mystery in a digital
watch then any mystics chanting at a stone-LB]
Let me tell you one last thing about crystals,and it may be the most fascinating
of all.The military metaphor makes us think of each soldier as a yard or
two from his neighbours.But actually almost all the interior of a crystal
is empty space.My head is 18 centimetres in diameter.To keep to scale,my
nearest in the crystalline parade would have to be standing more than a kilometre
away.No wonder the tiny particles called neutrinos (even smaller than electrons)
pass right through the earth and come out the other side as if it wasn't
there (on average,one passes through you every second).
But if solid things are mostly empty space,why don't we see them as empty
space? Why does a diamond feel hard and solid instead of crumbly and full
of holes? The answer lies in our own evolution.Our sense organs,like all
our bits,have been shaped by Darwinian natural selection over countless
generations.You might think that our sense organs would be shaped to give
us a "true" picture of the world as it "really" is.It is safer to assume,
however,that they have been shaped to give us a useful picture of the world,to
help us to survive.
In a way,what sense organs do is assist our brains to construct a useful
model of the world,and it is this model that we move around in.It is a kind
of "virtual reality" simulation of the real world.Neutrinos can pass straight
through a rock;but we can't.If we try to,we hurt ourselves.
[In fact,quantum physics allows a body such as that as
a human to pass through solid matter,but it would take an immense amount
of time,and would be infinitely unlikely-LB]
When constructing its simulation of rock,the brain therefore represents it
as hard and solid.It is almost as though our sense organs are telling us:
"You can't get through objects of this kind". That is what "solid" means.That
is why we perceive them as "solid".[So much for "perception"
In the same way,we find much of the universe,as science discovers it, difficult
to understand.Einstein's relativity,quantum uncertainty,black holes,the Big
Bang,the expanding universe,the vast slow movement of geological time - all
these are hard to grasp.No wonder science frightens some people.But science
can even explain why these things are hard to understand,and why the effort
We are jumped-up apes and our brains were only designed to understand the
mundane details of how to survive the Stone Age African savannah. These are
deep matters,and a short article is not the place to go into them.I shall
have succeeded if I have persuaded you that a scientific approach to crystals
is more illuminating,more uplifting and also stranger than anything imagined
in the wildest dreams of New Age gurus or paranormal preachers.The blunt
truth is that the dreams and visions of gurus and preachers are not nearly
wild enough.By scientific standards,that is.
 Web sites:
© Richard Dawkins. Richard Dawkins is the
Charles Simonyi Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford
University.His latest book,Unweaving the Rainbow:Science,Delusion and the
Appetite for Wonder,is published by Penguin on October 22.The book has no
chapter on crystals,but the author says that this is what it would have been
like if he had thought of it in time.
With respect to your article today in the Metro about MAGICK. I would like
to explain to you why this area of people's lives is objectionable and should
not be given cudos and publicity.It is based on a highly ignorant view of
life and propagation of it's ethos can only be damaging to human progress.
Pagan types or white witches believe they know more about the Earth and cycles
than do scientists - this is not so.
I have many pages online to indicate just what is wrong with their point
of view. I know first hand - because my ex-wife became involved with a pagan,a
person who professed to be caring - but actually was very materialistic,ignorant
and selfish. In part,she contributed to my marital breakdown and further
- my ex-wife became pagan and became as selfish as her pen friend,subsequently
marrying a pagan.
The history of these people is recounted in Black and White magic, where
Jacob Bronowski explains how a culture of people
came to be anti-science and believed they could influence the world. This
I found to be true with my ex wives friend - who read the tarot and believed
she could cast hexes on people - her whole world view was warped around this
perception - her and her husband had complete scorn for science - and also
failed to understand it.
Susan Blackmore explained in
DOES SCIENCE MATTER - that she had tested the
public and found that those most given to not be able make good judgements
of probability - ie risk assess were also those who tended to believe in
pseudo science and supernature - indeed this particular person who befriended
my ex wife - thought she would force a pair of die to produce more double
sixes than would be the norm. She never did - and also failed to understand
my mathematical analysis of her attempts - she was highly ignorant.
Many of my pages which seek to educate people are at
Richard Dawkins has been a big advocate of running down these pseudo science
believers - and exlains that with the hole created by a lack of religion
- many people lack meaning in their lives and search for "something more".
As John Maddox explains, many people are actually
out to do science and injury out of misplaced revenge.
A lot of advocates of pseudoscience presume that they
know what they are talking about with respect to energies and auras - but
in actual fact they are only scraping the surface of what science actually
One supernature magazine or "magick" magazine actually tried to use the science
of CHAOS THEORY to mock scientists.
Perhaps,if you read the Richard Dawkins article:
You will see that such things are not just a "bit of harmless fun" - nor
is the new age and age for pagans and mystics - it maybe an age of Earth
worshippers or Champions of the Environment - I am one myself - and I can
certainly understand why people would look for alternative world views when
materialism is failing them - but rejecting science is not the solution -
and many who do - do so out of ignorance or because they feel their is a
missing "something" in their lives. By lending credence to these con-men
you are helping destroy society. The Metro has a good history of keeping
science upheld in its letters column and centre pages as well as the MCOSM
column - I would advise BODY MATTERS to steer clear of the spirit and stick
to the body- Witches and pagans are not a new ethos - they are an old one
trying to get in on the gap in the spiritual market - do not fall into their